Job Search 2017

I’m looking for a VP/Creative Director/Product Design Lead/Head of Product role that lets me do what I enjoy and do very well: lead teams to design and launch products. Ideally, this role would be in San Francisco or Peninsula (no relocation) and involves either an interesting digital challenge or else consumer hardware, such as connected devices for the home (or office) or robotics. Financial stability (no early-stage startups) a must. This role should report to the CEO, other members of the C suite, or a VP. Dog-friendly workplace and San Francisco proper location are bonuses.

Here’s my

Contact me at dan [at] odannyboy [dot] com if you might have or know of suitable work. Thanks!

2016 Bibliography

Fiction

I, Robot, Isaac Asimov
Dark Matter, Blake Crouch
The Destructives, Matthew De Abaitua
The Three-Body Problem, Cixin Liu
Sleeping Giants, Sylvain Neuvel
Central Station, Lavie Tidhar
Underground Airlines, Ben H. Winters

Nonfiction

How to Use Graphic Design to Sell Things, Explain Things, Make Things Look Better, Make People Laugh, Make People Cry, and (Every Once in a While) Change The World, Michael Bierut
Bringing a Hardware Product to Market: Navigating the Wild Ride from Concept to Mass Production, Elaine Chen
Presence: Bringing Your Boldest Self to Your Biggest Challenges, Amy Cuddy
An Eames Anthology: Articles, Film Scripts, Interviews, Letters, Notes, and Speeches, Charles and Ray Eames
Time Travel: A History, James Gleick
Originals: How Non-Conformists Move the World, Adam Grant
The Product Manager’s Survival Guide: Everything You Need to Know to Succeed as a Product Manager, Steven Haines
The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future, Kevin Kelly
But What If We’re Wrong? Chuck Klosterman
The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life, Mark Manson
Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots, John Markoff
Trouble Boys: The True Story of the Replacements, Bob Mehr
Value Proposition Design: How to Create Products and Services Customers Want, Alexander Osterwalder
Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind, Al Ries, Jack Trout
Deep South: Four Seasons on Back Roads, Paul Theroux

College Admissions

Getting In by Standing Out, Deborah Bedor
Where You Go Is Not Who You’ll Be, Frank Bruni
Crazy U, Andrew Ferguson
Fiske Guide to Colleges 2017, Edward Fiske
A is for Admission, Michele Hernandez
Earning Admission: Real Strategies for Getting into Highly Selective Colleges, Greg Kaplan
Acceptance, David Marcus
Admission Matters (3rd ed), Sally Springer
The Gatekeepers: Inside the Admissions Process of a Premier College, Jacques Steinberg
Behind The Ivy Curtain: A Data Driven Guide to Elite College Admissions, Aayush Upadhyay

My Favorite Albums 2016

Same criteria as in previous years: replay-ibility and few skipped tracks. All links to Spotify.

10. Head Carrier, Pixies
Doesn’t really feel like a Pixies album, but has enough Frank Black mojo to be enjoyable.
9. We Can Do Anything, Violent Femmes
Weirdly, I only like most of the odd-numbered tracks here.
Not as good as the early work, but some good atmospherics.
7. Winter Wheat, John K. Samson
Weakerthans’ front man spins out some great vignettes.
6. Remember Us to Life, Regina Spektor
Quirky, beautiful, haunting. “The Light” is a standout.
5. Wild Stab, The I Don’t Cares
The Paul Westerberg songs are what to stick around for through some of the stupider tunes.
4. Welcome The Worms, Bleached
Rock!
3. Nice As Fuck, Nice as Fuck
Jenny Lewis-fronted supergroup with tunes that go down smooth.
2. You Won’t, Revolutionaries
Quirky, 90s-inspired rock. Are those bagpipes?
1. Goodbye Terrible Youth, American Wrestlers
Rocking mix of 80s, 90s, and today. Catches the moment so well.

See also my picks for:

My Favorite Design Articles 2016

Crafting The First Mile of Product, Scott Belsky, Medium

A failed first mile cripples a new product right out of the gate. Your product may get lots of downloads or sign-ups, but very few customers get on-boarded and primed to the point where they know three things: (1) why they’re there, (2) what they can accomplish, (3) and what to do next (note: users don’t need to know how to use your product at the beginning, they just need to know what to do next!). Once a new user knows these three things, they have reached “The Zone.” Fantastic businesses are built when the majority of users that express interest in a product are able to get on-boarded and into The Zone.

Play Anything, Ian Bogost, Design.blog

In truth, the most useful lesson to take away from games doesn’t have much to do with games at all. It’s just easier to see the lesson inside of games than outside them.

That lesson is that things are most compelling when they are allowed to be exactly what they are. And they’re even more compelling the more they are exactly what they are. That means that the designer’s job is to make things even more what they already are.

Why Can’t Designers Solve More Meaningful Problems? Andy Budd

Every few months, somebody in our industry will question why designers don’t use their talents to solve more meaningful problems; like alleviating the world from illness, hunger or debt. This statement will often be illustrated with a story of how a team from IDEO or Frog spent 3 months in a sub-saharan village creating a new kind of water pump, a micro-payment app, or a revolutionary healthcare delivery service. The implication being that if these people can do it, why can’t you?

Buttons in Design Systems, Nathan Curtis, Medium

I love buttons. I can do things with buttons. Take a next step. Make a commitment. Get things done. With buttons, interaction springs to life.

That’s why Buttons are arguably a design system’s most important component. Devilishly simple, they offer a simple label in a defined region I can press. As such, buttons are where you apply a design language’s base attributes in ways that’ll ripple throughout more complex component later.

The Life and Death of Data Products, Fabien Girardin, Medium

At the crossroad of data-science and design are emerging living products with an experience that evolves according to human behaviors and constantly updating models fed by streams of data. Design Fiction is one way to approach the design of data products anticipating their evolution, the frustrations they produce, their potential death and their after lives.

A man sent me a dick pic on Instagram, Ash Huang, Medium

The dick pic was an edge case that did not get properly addressed, and now I forever have to have some stranger’s penis on my phone. If it were actually addressed, maybe I could say whether or not I want people to send me message requests at all (after all, with the cute little alert is visually designed, a message request is as almost as good as a message from someone I follow). If it were addressed, maybe I wouldn’t see image previews from strangers unless we had a friend in common.

Yep. That’s complicated. But it may have stopped me from seeing a dickpic today, which pretty much makes me forget every good simple interaction I had on Instagram in the last month.

The Internet of Things has a dirty little secret: it’s not really yours, The Internet of Shit, The Verge

The hidden costs of running these operations are immense. There are servers to rent, bandwidth to pay for, and salaries to pay. But none of that is mentioned when you buy a gadget off a shelf, and in the majority of cases there’s no way to actually pay for your ongoing use of the product. How are those costs going to be recaptured when you’re paying a one-time fee for the hardware? I can’t wait until my Nest starts asking for an in-app purchase to heat my house one day.

Designing Complex Products, Erik Klimczak, Medium

Complexity in product design tends to rear its head in two ways 1) the complexity of managing people and opinions. And 2) the complexity of designing the product itself. It’s not always intuitive how to keep your head above water in a sea of features, users and stakeholders. I’ve certainly fallen on my face in the past, so I’d like to share some insights I’ve gleaned about tackling these big design projects.

Bad Housekeeping, Ava Kofman, The New Inquiry

Just as women’s magazines pressured wives to make their faces and surfaces more spotless, the collection of ever more precise standards of childhood achievement, linked to social media, will create new standards and objectives for caring for children. The numbers will make it even easier to compete—and to blame. Shame on you for forgetting to count baby’s first steps, even if you don’t know why you’re counting them.

Why Your Startup’s Founding Team Needs A Designer, Sallie Krawcheck, Fast Company

Everyone seems to think they have a great design idea. As a startup founder, no doubt you do, too. This may be the best argument in favor of hiring a design head from the very outset: It simply lessens your risk of self-sabotage over your own misguided and inexpert design ideas. Instead, it’s your job as a founder to make sure your senior team members have room to do their own jobs—which means not every design idea is going to be tested or adopted, including your own.

The Secret UX Issues That Will Make (or Break) Self-Driving Cars, Cliff Kuang, Fast Company

Technology is like that: We don’t ditch what we have. We constantly update our metaphors, trying to find familiar handholds that quietly explain how a technology works. In digesting new technologies, as we climb a ladder of metaphors, each rung might follow the one before. Over time, we find ourselves further and further from the rungs we started with, so that we eventually leave them behind, like so many tiller-inspired steering wheels.

So Your Boss Doesn’t Believe in Design Research, Laura Martini, Medium

A finance team doesn’t say that they make spreadsheets for a living; they talk about their benefit to the company in terms of how much money they save. Recruiters don’t say that they write emails and make phone calls; they help build teams necessary for a company’s growth. Start to think of research as a way to give value to the company, and be ready to articulate why it’s important using words that other teams will understand.

Who Really Controls What You See in Your Facebook Feed—and Why They Keep Changing It, Will Oremus, Slate

Facebook’s algorithm, I learned, isn’t flawed because of some glitch in the system. It’s flawed because, unlike the perfectly realized, sentient algorithms of our sci-fi fever dreams, the intelligence behind Facebook’s software is fundamentally human. Humans decide what data goes into it, what it can do with that data, and what they want to come out the other end. When the algorithm errs, humans are to blame. When it evolves, it’s because a bunch of humans read a bunch of spreadsheets, held a bunch of meetings, ran a bunch of tests, and decided to make it better. And if it does keep getting better? That’ll be because another group of humans keeps telling them about all the ways it’s falling short: us.

What is Good Product Strategy? Melissa Perri, Medium

Most companies fall into the trap of thinking about Product Strategy as a plan to build certain features and capabilities. We often say our Product Strategy are things like:

“To create a platform that allows music producers to upload and share their music.”
“To create a backend system that will allow the sales team to manage their leads.”
“To create a front of the funnel website that markets to our target users and converts them.”

This isn’t a strategy, this is a plan. The problem is that when we treat a product strategy like a plan, it will almost always fail. Plans do not account for uncertainty or change. They give us a false sense of security.

Why The Heck Can’t We Change Our Product? Steven Sinofsky

The biggest risk in product design is assuming a static world view where your winning product will continue to win with the same experience improving incrementally along the same path that got you success in the first place.

What Do User Interfaces Want? Rob Tannen, UX Magazine

User interfaces want what languages want. They want to extend our ability to generate and communicate information, which leads to new ideas. As we figure out how to interact with technology, we stand at the cusp of another potential advancement in civilization – just as the emergence of spoken language caused the rapid growth of information and ideas over 500 centuries ago, user interfaces have quickly accelerated the exchange of information and ideas between people and technology. Like spoken language, user interfaces are a technology, but also a meta-technology that allows us to generate new technologies.

The Man Who Invented Intelligent Traffic Control a Century Too Early, Lee Vinsel, IEEE Spectrum

The success of an innovation often depends as much on the quality of our institutions as it does on the quality of the technology itself.

Design Doesn’t Scale, Stanley Wood, Medium

How does a team of distributed designers, spread across different time-zones, projects and competing objectives ever find a way to work together so they can create one coherent experience? Here’s what we discovered.

Related

2015 Bibliography

FICTION

The Mechanical, Ian Tregillis

Robot Futures, Illah Reza Nourbakhsh

If Then, Matthew De Abaitua

Time Salvager, Wesley Chu

Aurora, Kim Stanley Robinson

Red Sparrow, Jason Matthews

A Darker Shade of Magic, V. E. Schwab

The Giant, O’Brien, Hilary Mantel

The First 15 Lives of Harry August, Claire North

The Goblin Emperor, Katherine Addison

The Long Way to a Small, Angry Planet, Becky Chambers

The Goldfinch, Donna Tartt

NON FICTION

H is for Hawk, Helen Macdonald

Sapiens, Yuval Noah Harari

Unfaithful Music & Disappearing Ink, Elvis Costello

Cunning Plans, Warren Ellis

Sick in the Head, Judd Apatow

The Residence, Kate Andersen Brower

Bowie, Simon Critchley

The Unspeakable, Meghan Daum

Designing Products People Love, Scott Hurff

Design Sprint, Richard Banfield, C. Todd Lombardo, and Trace Wax

UX Strategy, Jamie Levy

Sex at Dawn, Christopher Ryan and Cacilda Jentha

The Hardware Startup, Renee DiResta and Brady Forrest

My Top 10 Albums 2015

The 90s are back! So many albums I listened to this year were overtly 90s influenced (Sprinter, Dry Food) and some quite good ones (The Magic Whip, Star Wars) from bands who started in the 90s. One real surprise here was Kate Pierson, who released her first solo album at age 67 and it’s delightful—right up there with the best of the B-52s. All links go to Spotify.

  1. Carrie & Lowell, Sufjan Stevens
  2. Bleeders Digest, Say Hi
  3. 1989, Ryan Adams
  4. Before The World Was Big, Girlpool
  5. Guitars and Microphones, Kate Pierson
  6. Star Wars, Wilco
  7. Dry Food, Palehound
  8. Sprinter, Torres
  9. The Magic Whip, Blur
  10. Ad Infinitum, Telekinesis

See also my picks for:

My Favorite Design Articles 2015

Giving Customers What They Want, The Book of Life

Taste is a variable factor. We’re very good at appreciating moves of taste in retrospect – but in advance we are so much less alive to the inevitable repetition of the phenomenon. Therefore, businesses routinely end up assuming that their customers don’t care about anything they are not currently getting; and get bogged down in the worry that if they introduced something they feel is better – but rather different from current offerings – they will be punished. Such timidity tends to doom them.

Spacial Interfaces, Pasquale D’Silva, Medium

I believe the best software is an extension of the human brain. It lets us think naturally, and conforms to us, not the other way around. Translation of information should be the computer’s job, not ours. It’s what we built these digital slaves for. A great Spatial Interface meets our expectations of a physical model. Designed for human beings, it supports a mind, living in the dimensions of space and time. They are Interfaces that are sensible about where things lay. Like a well designed building, they’re easy to traverse through. One space flows into the other, without surprise.

What It Means To Be Great, Horace Dediu

Improvements which are not asked for but which change behavior suggest that the product is valued because it changes the buyer. I believe this is what causes us to pause and appreciate them. We feel we have been improved by the thing we bought though we did not ask to be made better by it. Collectively, multiplying by millions, the improvement we feel compels us to anoint the product as great.

Close at Hand, Diana Kimball, Medium

In a very real way, what people tuck into their pockets signals what they care about. Ötzi the Iceman carried fungus to make fire. Japanese men in the Endo period carried medicine and seals. Queen Elizabeth I carried a miniature jewel-encrusted devotional book. European women in the 18th century carried money, jewelry, personal grooming implements, and even food. Here in 2015, we carry cellphones — never letting them out of our sight.

Futures of Text, Jonathan Libov, Whoops

In contrast to a GUI that defines rules for each interaction—rules which, frustratingly, change from app to app—text-based, conversational interactions are liberating in their familiarity. There’s only really only one way to skin this cat: The text I type is displayed on the right, the text someone else typed is on the left, and there’s an input field on bottom for me to compose a message.

Tastemaker: How Spotify’s Discover Weekly cracked human curation at internet scale, Ben Popper, The Verge

Generating a human-curated playlist for each of Spotify’s users would be a challenge of mammoth proportion. “We probably can’t hire enough editors to do that,” says Ogle. So Spotify uses each of its users as one cog in a company-wide curatorial machine. “The answer was staring us in the face: playlists, since the beginning, have been more or less the basic currency of Spotify. Users have made more than 2 billion of them.” In effect, Discover Weekly sidesteps the man versus machine debate and delivers the holy grail of music recommendation: human curation at scale.

Inside the Design Labs Where the iPhone’s Coolest New Feature Was Built, Josh Tyrangiel, Bloomberg

The designers concede they were far down a rabbit hole until they remembered, as Federighi says, that while the hardware was measuring force, the software needed to measure intent. To make what is counterintuitive feel normal, each on-screen “peek” and “pop” is accompanied by a 10-millisecond or 15-millisecond haptic tap, little vibrations that say “good job” to your fingers when an action is complete. (The precise timing of those taps is a cosmology all its own.)

Tom Vanderbilt Explains Why We Could Predict Self-Driving Cars, But Not Women in the Workplace, Tom Vanderbilt, Nautilus

“Futurology is almost always wrong,” the historian Judith Flanders suggested to me, “because it rarely takes into account behavioral changes.” And, she says, we look at the wrong things: “Transport to work, rather than the shape of work; technology itself, rather than how our behavior is changed by the very changes that technology brings.” It turns out that predicting who we will be is harder than predicting what we will be able to do.

Dropdowns Should Be The UI of Last Resort, Luke Wroblewski

All too often mobile forms make use of dropdown menus for input when simpler or more appropriate controls would work better. Here’s several alternatives to dropdowns to consider in your designs and why.

Articles I Wrote in 2015

Related

Job Search 2015

My role as Creative Director for New Products at Jawbone has been eliminated, so I’m once again searching for a new professional home.

I’m looking for a VP/Creative Director/Product Design Lead/Head of Product role that lets me do the thing I do very well: lead teams to design and launch products. Ideally, this role would be in San Francisco proper (no relocation) and involves consumer hardware and software. I’m particularly interested in connected devices for the home (or office) or wearables. Financial stability (no early-stage startups) a must. Dog-friendly workplace is a plus.

Here’s my resume as a PDF or on LinkedIn. Thanks to many NDAs, my online portfolio basically ends four years ago, but I can walk through some work in person, although all of my most recent work is unfortunately off-limits.

Contact me at dan [at] odannyboy [dot] com if you might have or know of suitable work. Thanks!

2014 Bibliography

Unlike previous years, no big “You Must Read This!” books this year. Alas. But many enjoyable reads, particularly among the fiction, which was unusually heavy on the scifi/fantasy this year—perhaps to escape the lousy outside world that was 2014.

FICTION
A History of the Future in 100 Objects, Adrian Hon
Station Eleven, Emily St. John Mandel
Annihilation, Jeff VanderMeer
Echopraxia, Peter Watts
The Bone Clocks, David Mitchell
The Blade Itself, Joe Abercrombie
Before They Are Hanged, Joe Abercrombie
Last Argument Of Kings, Joe Abercrombie
The Martian, Andy Weir
The Interestings, Meg Wolitzer

NON-FICTION
The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon, Brad Stone
Love & Terror on the Howling Plains of Nowhere, Poe Ballantine
Hacking Hollywood, Chuck Salter (ed.)
Dataclysm: Who We Are (When We Think No One’s Looking), Christian Rudder
Enchanted Objects: Design, Human Desire, and the Internet of Things, David Rose
Structuring Your Novel: Essential Keys for Writing an Outstanding Story, K.M. Weiland
Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die, Chip and Dan Heath
The Thing with Feathers: The Surprising Lives of Birds and What They Reveal About Being Human, Noah Strycker
Marvel Comics: The Untold Story, Sean Howe
Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness, Richard H. Thaler
Designing for Emerging Technologies: UX for Genomics, Robotics, and the Internet of Things, Jonathan Follett et al.
The Genius of Dogs, Brian Hare and Vanessa Woods
Hidden in Plain Sight, Jan Chipchase
My Struggle: Book 1, Karl Ove Knausgaard

POETRY
New and Selected Poems Volume One, Mary Oliver
The Essential Rumi, Coleman Barks (translator)

 

Bibliographies for:

My Design Articles 2014

Designing a Creative Practice

For much of my life, I’ve taken a pretty haphazard attitude towards my own creativity. And while I’ve been mostly successful, I have long periods of creative block, as well as professional goals that have idled. I look back at envy at some of the most creatively-fertile periods of my life (2007-8 in particular) and I’ve realized there were activities I did every day that I should probably resume.

At the same time, for the last few months, I’ve been reading a number of books on creativity and forming creative habits. While many of these books have different, specific pieces of advice, I’ve collected the themes into a course of action for myself.

The UX of Commercial Drones, UX Magazine

Technology asks, “Can it be done?” Design asks, “Should it be done, and how?” I’ve thought about these questions frequently in the weeks following the 60 Minutes’ introduction of Amazon’s PrimeAir. While some were horrified by the prospect of commercial drones buzzing through the skies, I was amazed and intrigued at this vision of the future. But that’s all it is right now: a vision, and a somewhat crude one at that—one that leaves many questions unanswered.

Some of those questions are logistical and legal: Will this work and in what environments? What are the implications on a social level and where safety is concerned? These are all tremendously important questions, but let’s assume the issues surrounding them can be worked out. After all, there is plenty of money to be made (by Amazon and others like FedEx [and Google’s Project Wing]) by making it a reality. In fact, Ross McCullough, vice president of corporate strategy at UPS, recently said: “I believe these things will be part of the system in the future. I don’t know when.”

The Hidden Genius and Influence of The Traffic Light, Wired

See it sway: three-eyed blind bat hanging from a wire. Or perhaps there: perched atop a pole, lights moving from top to bottom–green yellow red green yellow red–in its unvarying sequence. Two hundred years ago, it would have been a wonder, something on display at the Great Exhibition of 1851, gawked at by Victorians. Today it’s seen but unconsidered, passed under a dozen times a day by most of us, influencing how we move, shaping our cities, warping how we travel, and occasionally, inadvertently, helping to kill us. Consider the traffic light.

The First Things on The Internet (of Things)

I was curious what the first non-traditional-computer objects were that were connected to a computer network. (A telegraph is probably the first device connected to any kind of network.) To be technical: a non-computer yet packet switched network device with continuous or frequent connectivity to said network.) Here’s some I found, stretching back 40 years.

Why We Need to Tame Our Algorithms Like Dogs, Wired

These coded aliens, these ghosts in the machines, are becoming even incomprehensible to their creators. With algorithms starting to take on oversight and control of our critical systems, we need to ensure that, like with dogs, we become comprehensible to them. If so, perhaps in the future we’ll think of them as Man’s Best Friend.

On Design Education, Medium

The crux of the matter is the feeling that many design schools are doing a disservice to their students by preparing them for careers they’re unlikely to have, at least right out of school. “No one wants to hire a 22-year-old strategist,” was how a colleague (perhaps indelicately) phrased it. Graduate schools focus on more and more specialized, baroque areas of design. Meanwhile, undergraduates are pointed towards areas like service and systems design, and social innovation, despite the fact that the job market for those is small. What most undergraduates in the design field will work on when they graduate are products: physical objects, printed materials, or (increasingly) hardware and software. Now certainly, most of these will be part of a service or system, and some (hopefully all) will have a benefit to society. And no one is arguing that an understanding of strategy, services and systems isn’t essential to understanding 21st century design. But too many graduates get out of school and become disillusioned when the work they’re doing is not at the system or service level, but at the product level, where their skills, at least initially, are needed the most. I’ve seen this first-hand.

Some Kind of Toaster, Medium

It wasn’t quite as bad for my father. By the time he was built in 2001, there were lots of things on the Internet: coffee pots, refrigerators, even toilets. Switching a toaster on — or even knowing if it was in use or not — was pretty trivial by then. People had gotten used to seeing objects online; it wasn’t quite the freakshow it was in grandpa’s time.

No, with Dad, connecting him had to be for something different, something interesting. It wasn’t enough that he was on the Internet — that he was present — but that he did something as well. Being online had to mean something. It had to be useful. So — get this — he told the weather.

The End of Design as We Know It, Medium

To many people this is a bleak, grim, oh-shit-there-goes-my-job, future. Which is understandable, because for many people this probably will be the end of their job unless they future-proof themselves. You future-proof yourself by ensuring that the kind of work you do cannot be easily replicated by an algorithm. In design, those skills are insights-gathering, problem framing, and crafting unconventional solutions.

The Wonderful Possibilities of Connecting Your Fridge to The Internet, Wired

Smart appliances humbly predict our needs and modestly adjust as little as possible to accommodate them. This sometimes requires connecting to the network for a better, bigger brain or to draw upon the collected intelligence of similar objects. You don’t need to stuff lots of processing power and memory into the object itself if it can use resources in the cloud. Imagine if your refrigerator could learn how to keep food cooler more cheaply by looking at the data from other refrigerators in the area? Collective machine intelligence and the benefits it could engender such as fixing model-specific problems and product efficiency are good reasons to enable network connectivity.

The Shelves Come to The Pickers, Medium

It could be that we’re finally seeing emerge what the late John Rheinfrank called “Adaptive Worlds”: products and environments that are smart enough to change their functionality, content, and even form based on the task and the person’s abilities. In this worldview, design isn’t human-centered (although humans are part of the system) but rather ability-centered: what are the capabilities of the people and products in the system and how can they react and supplement each other to perform activities.